Rabies

Rabies is an infectious viral disease that affects the nervous system. It is transmitted by a bite or saliva from a rabid animal.

Worldwide, about one person every 10 minutes dies of rabies, mostly in Africa and Asia. Although human rabies is relatively rare in the United States, where there are typically only a few cases per year, animal bites are very common. As a result, thousands of people each year receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP. The recommended treatment is four shots given in the first two weeks after exposure on days 0, 3, 7 and 14.

Avoid bats or animals that appear to be sick, flopping around, or behaving unusually, and keep your pets up to date on their rabies vaccinations.

Cases in Oregon (2013)

  • 7 bats
  • 2 coyote
  • 1 fox

In mid-October, a Deschutes County resident contacted a bat while cleaning the roof of his home. The bat tested positive for rabies and the person is undergoing post-exposure prophylaxis.

In late September, a coyote that was shot by deputy in Baker County tested positive for rabies and canine distemper.

In mid-August, a bat found crawling on a human's arm in Tillamook County tested positive for rabies. The victim is undergoing post-exposure prophylaxis.

On July 22, a person in Cave Junction attempted to rescue a drowning bat during the daylight hours. The person was bitten and subsequently the bat died after the incident. The victim is undergoing post-exposure prophylaxis.

On July 19, State Public Health Veterinarian Dr. Emilio DeBess stated that the Oregon State Public Health Laboratory reported a rabies positive bat in Clackamas County. The bat, found in Damascus, had contact with 2 unvaccinated cats. According to the Rabies Compendium, the cats could undergo a strict 6 month quarantine or euthanasia. The owner opted to euthanize both cats.

In May, a bat found on a couch in a home in Medford (Jackson County) tested positive for rabies. Two unvaccinated dogs that lived in the home were euthanized. It was the first rabies positive bat of 2013 in Oregon.

Earlier this year, two foxes in Josephine County have tested positive for rabies. In one of these cases, two previously vaccinated dogs and one not currently vaccinated dog were in contact with the rabid fox.

Currently vaccinated pets (dogs, cats and ferrets) exposed to a rabid animal are to be re-vaccinated for rabies and quarantined for 45 days. Unvaccinated (not up-to-date) pets will be euthanized or revaccinated and placed on strict home quarantine for 6 months.

In a separate case, a rabid bat bit a woman May 21 inside her southern Grant County home. She underwent prophylaxis.

Do Not Pick Up or Touch Bats

Bats play an important role in the ecosystem, especially in controlling insects at night. They are an important insect predator; they often eat mosquitoes and can catch over 1,000 tiny insects in an hour. Bats emerge from hibernation in early spring and remain active until late fall; they are most active in warm weather.

Most often, humans are exposed to rabies by picking up a what seems to be a sick or injured bat. If you find a bat during daylight hours, it is most likely unhealthy and should be avoided.

Anyone bitten by a bat should be vaccinated for rabies immediately if the bat is not available for testing. Cats increase the risk by playing with bats and taking them into homes.

If you are scratched or bitten by a bat, immediately clean the wound. If the bat has been captured, do not crush the bat or throw it away, as intact bats can be tested for rabies, which can avoid post exposure rabies shots.

Every year about 10 percent of the bats tested for rabies test positive for the disease. Bats are tested for rabies only when a person or a pet has had physical contact with them.

Interested in learning more about Oregon bats?

Handling Bats

Handling bats is not recommended, but if you must handle a bat, it should be done with sturdy gloves or an implement, such as a shovel. Direct hand contact with bats should always be avoided. Place the bat in a secure container and contact your county health authorities.

Video: How to Safely Catch a Bat in Your Home

If You Are Bitten

If you are bitten by any animal—even a household pet—and especially if the bite is from a wild animal, such as a bat, it is important to clean the wound and then consult with your health care provider immediately.

If you are scratched or bitten by a bat, immediately clean the wound. If the bat has been captured, do not crush the bat or throw it away, as intact bats can be tested for rabies, which can help you avoid post exposure rabies shots (PEP).

According to the law, dogs, cats or ferrets that bite humans should be quarantined for 10 days. If any other animal bites a human, euthanasia and rabies testing of the animal is recommended.

Oregon State and County Law Requires Rabies Vaccination for Pets

Dogs, cats and ferrets should be vaccinated against rabies. Vaccinating pets not only protects them but it provides a “buffer zone” between humans and rabid wild animals. Oregon law requires all dogs to be vaccinated against rabies as early as three months of age. In addition, Multnomah County requires all cats to be vaccinated for rabies.

Oregon law requires that unvaccinated pets that may have been in contact with rabid animals to be vaccinated and quarantined for six months or euthanized. The contact animal, such as a bat, is considered rabid unless it is tested and is negative.

Vaccinated dogs, cats, and ferrets exposed to a rabid animal should be revaccinated immediately, kept under the owner's control, and observed for 45 days. Any illness in an isolated or confined animal should be reported immediately to the local health department. If signs suggestive of rabies develop, the animal should be euthanized and tested.

A Note on Travel

Please note that if you plan to travel with your pet to other states, or out of the country, the vast majority of destinations require a current rabies vaccination in order to allow entry to your pet. The State of Oregon requires that animals over 4 months old who are entering Oregon must have a current rabies vaccination. Our Travel section has more information on these requirements.

Why It's Very Important to Vaccinate Cats

 

Nationally, twice as many cats as dogs are reported to have rabies each year, which is why it’s important to vaccinate your cats for rabies. Cats are natural predators and may be attracted to bats, which could be rabid. Cats come into contact with bats far more often than other pets and, if not vaccinated, may have to be euthanized after such contact.

Consider Vaccination for Horses

While the incidence of rabies is low, the disease is invariably fatal in horses. Because of this, and the risk to public health, the American Association of Equine Practitioners recommends rabies vaccinations for horses. Consult with your veterinarian about vaccination protocols for your horse.

Raccoons

In the past 50+ years, no raccoons have tested positive for rabies in Oregon. Raccoons can, and do, contract canine distemper, and can display neurologic symptoms similar to rabies.

Tips to Keep Your Family Safe

  • Vaccinate your pets.
  • Watch wildlife from a distance. Don’t approach or attempt to handle wild animals.
  • Do not feed wild animals.
  • Keep garbage in secure containers and away from wildlife.
  • Feed pets indoors.
  • Seal openings in attics, basements, porches, sheds, barns and screen chimneys that might provide access to bats and other wildlife.

Published: March 9, 2009;    Updated: November 14, 2013

Filed Under: Zoonotic Diseases, Companion Animals, Equine, Cats, Dogs

Sources: News reports, State Public Health Veterinarian, Oregon Health Authority

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